BTR (БТР), from Bronetransportyor/Bronetransporter (Russian: бронетранспортёр/Ukrainian: бронетранспортер; literally "armoured transporter"), is any of a series of Soviet or post-Soviet military armoured personnel carriers.
BTR-90 (GAZ-5923) (Russian: бронетранспортёр, romanized: Bronetransportyor, lit. 'Armoured Transporter') is an 8×8 wheeled armored personnel carrier developed in Russia, designed in 1993 and first shown publicly in 1994. It is a larger version of the BTR-80 vehicle, fitted with a BMP-2 turret. Armour protection is improved compared with the BTR-80, giving protection from 14.5 mm projectiles over the frontal arc.
It is armed with a 2A42 30 mm auto cannon, a coaxial 7.62 mm PKT machine gun, an AT-5 Spandrel ATGM, as well as an AGS-17D 30 mm automatic grenade launcher. Limited numbers have been produced and are in service with Russian Internal Troops.
In October 2011, the Ministry of Defence refused to buy the BTR-90 and did not include them in the list of the state program of armament until 2020, and waived exports for the BTR-90.
The BTR-90 has a pointed nose, somewhat similar to that of the LAV-25. The hull is made of welded steel armour plate, and is slightly larger and higher than the BTR-80, from which it is developed.
A turbo charged, liquid cooled, multi-fuel diesel engine is used, which can develop 510 bhp. The vehicle has eight-wheel drive and has an automatic reversible hydro mechanical transmission, which is capable of providing different speeds to each side of the vehicle. It has duplicated electrical and compressed air engine start systems. The wheels are utilized with independent torsion-bar suspension and the traverse arms have high capacity telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers.
Communication equipment installed in the BTR-90 include an R-163-50U radio set for external communications, an R-163UP receiver, and an R-174 intercom device for communication between the crew members.
The BTR-90 is capable of achieving a maximum speed of 100 km/h, and has cross-country driving ability comparable to that of tracked vehicles, with an average speed of 50 km/h.
The vehicle is fully amphibious and can negotiate water obstacles without any preparation. Two water jet propellers power the vehicle in water. In water it can achieve a maximum speed of 9 km/h. It can enter and be deployed from amphibious assault ships from the water. The BTR-90 can be deployed by truck, rail and by water and air transportation means.
Its hydro mechanical transmission helps to increase its maneuverability by providing different speeds to each side of the vehicle. This allows the BTR-90 to have a low turning radius of 6 m. When turning with only the front four wheels, it has a turning radius of 14 m. It can cross up to 2.1 m wide trenches and can negotiate 60% gradients, 30% side slopes and 0.8 m vertical steps.
The vehicle has an inner capacity of 12 cubic meters, and can carry a load of 7,000 kg. An air conditioning system can be added optionally. The commander has the ability to carry out all-round surveillance and can take full control of the weapons from the gunner. An onboard information control system (OICS) enables automatic control over the transmission, engine and other important parts of the BTR-90, and it is the first armoured personnel carrier to have such a system. A centralized tire pressure control system is available, and allows the vehicle to move even if four of its wheels are destroyed.
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